Μέλος-Φάντασμα

Τα φαντάσματα του μυαλού1 (Το μέλος-φάντασμα)

Μέλος-Φάντασμα

Ο Δημήτρης κατά τη διάρκεια ενός τροχαίου με μοτοσυκλέττα, σε ηλικία 19 ετών, τραυμάτισε σοβαρά το αριστερό χέρι του, ιδιαίτερα τα νεύρα και τα αγγεία. Από τότε το χέρι του ήταν παράλυτο. Ενα χρόνο αργότερα είχε φοβερούς πόνους λόγω της βλάβης των αγγείων και χρειάστηκε να ακρωτηριαστεί το χέρι του πάνω από τον αγκώνα.

11 χρόνια αργότερα, ο Δημήτρης2 ένιωθε το ακρωτηριασμένο του χέρι σαν να υπάρχει!

Η παράλυση και ο πόνος που είχε νιώσει πριν τον ακρωτηριασμό είχαν μεταφερθεί σε ένα ανύπαρκτο χέρι, σε ένα “μέλος-φάντασμα” το οποίο το ένιωθε σε φυσικό μέγεθος, ήταν παράλυτο και πονούσε φρικτά3.

Το κουτί-καθρέφτης

Το κουτί-καθρέφτης

Η περίπτωση του Δημήτρη αντιμετωπίστηκε με τη μέθοδο της ψευδαίσθησης του κουτιού-καθρέφτη που περιγράφουμε παρακάτω: Τοποθετήθηκε ένας καθρέφτης με τρόπο ώστε ο ασθενής έβλεπε ταυτόχρονα το υγιές χέρι του και την αντανάκλασή του εκεί που θα έβλεπε το ακρωτηριασμένο του χέρι, εάν το είχε. Διπλές τυφές μελέτες έχουν δείξει ότι όταν ο ασθενής κουνάει το υγιές χέρι του ενώ ταυτόχρονα το βλέπει στον καθρέφτη (εκεί που θα υπήρχε το ακρωτηριασμένο) τότε του δημιουργείται η ψευδαίσθηση ότι “κινείται” το ακρωτηριασμένο του χέρι. Η ψευδαίσθηση αυτή, εξουδετερώνει τελικά δυσάρεστες αισθήσεις όπως πόνος ή κράμπες στο “μέλος-φάντασμα”.

γιατροί (2009) έκαναν θεραπεία στον Δημήτρη χρησιμοποιώντας το κουτί-καθρέφτη και ταυτόχρονα φακούς οι οποίοι μίκραιναν το είδωλο του υγιούς χεριού που έβλεπε λόγω του καθρέφτη στη θέση που έπρεπε να ήταν το ακρωτηριασμένο. Μετά από πολλές συνεδρίες όπου το ο πήχυς και ο βραχίονας ως είδωλα μίκραιναν συνεχώς, ο ασθενής έβλεπε μόνο τα δάκτυλα και στο τέλος δεν έβλεπε ούτε αυτά. Καθώς γινόταν αυτό ο Δημήτρης δεν είχε τα ενοχλήματα από το “χέρι-φάντασμα” αλλά δυστυχώς αυτό διαρκούσε μόνο όσο γινόταν η θεραπεία.

Ερμηνεία

Μία ερμηνεία για την αίσθηση “μέλους-φαντάσματος” στηρίζεται στο γεγονός ότι κάθε μέρος του σώματος εκπροσωπείται στον εγκέφαλο.

Με την απoυσία αισθητηριακών ερεθισμάτων από το μέλος που λείπει, η περιοχή που το εκπροσωπεί στον εγκέφαλο μπορεί να γεννήσει είτε αυτόματα είτε επίκτητα (εκμαθημένα) ερεθίσματα όπως ο πόνος ο οποίος στη συνέχεια γίνεται αισθητός ώς ερέθισμα από το “μέλος-φάντασμα”. Ένα στοιχείο που συνηγορεί με τη θεωρία αυτή της εκπροσώπησης στον εγκέφαλο είναι και οι αναφορές που υπάρχουν για ανθρώπους οι οποίοι παρότι γεννήθηκαν χωρίς κάποιο μέλος είχαν την εμπειρία του “μέλους-φάντασμα”. Ενα άλλο στοιχείο που συνηγορεί είναι οι περιπτώσεις ανθρώπων που πάσχουν από αποτεμνοφιλία, μιά διαταραχή κατά την οποία διακατέχονται από την έντονη επιθυμία να ακρωτηριάσουν καποιο μέλος τους. Η εξήγηση που δίνεται εδώ είναι ότι οφείλεται σε δυσλειτουργία της περιοχής του εγκεφάλου που εκπροσωπείται το μέλος το οποίο θέλει ο πάσχων να αποκόψει, οπότε θεωρείται το μέλος ώς “ξένο” και “ανεπιθύμητο” και δημιουργείται στον πάσχοντα η (μερικές φορές πολύ) έντονη διάθεση να το αποκόψει.

Τα πολλά περίεργα ευρήματα που σχετίζονται με τη μελέτη του φαινομένου “μέλος-φάντασμα” φανερώνουν ότι η νευρική εκπροσώπηση του σώματος στον εγκέφαλο, υπαγορεύεται από αισθητηριάκά ερεθίσματα που προέρχονται από το σώμα. Έτσι η εικόνα που έχουμε για το σώμα μας είναι προϊόν ταυτόχρονα της λειτουργίας της εκπροσώπησης του σώματος στον εγκέφαλο και των αισθητηριακών πληροφοριών που το σώμα παρέχει στον εγκέφαλο. Η συνεχής ενημέρωση της εκπροσώπησης στον εγκέφαλο εξασφαλίζει τη συμφωνία ανάμεσα στην πραγματικότητα και στην εγγενή (inborn, προϋπάρχουσα) σωματική εκπροσώπηση (Makin et al., 2013).

Προεκτάσεις: σεξουαλική ταυτοτητα, νευρική ανορεξία

Οι ανακολουθίες που μπορεί να παρουσιαστούν ανάμεσα στην εμπειρία και στην εγκεφαλική εκπροσώπηση μπορεί να είναι υπεύθυνες όχι μόνο για το φαινόμενο του “μέλους-φάντασμα” αλλά και να εξηγούν και συγκρούσεις σχετικές με τη σεξουαλική ταυτότητα. Επίσης αυτές οι ανακολοθίες εμπειρίας – εκπροσώπησης μπορεί να συνδέονται και με την λανθασμένη εικόνα του σώματος που έχουν ορισμένα άτομα που πάσχουν από “νευρική ανορεξία” και περιορίζουν την τροφή τους ή γυμνάζονται υπερβολικά με σκοπό να χάσουν βάρους. Τα άτομα αυτά μπορούν να φτάσουν ακόμη και σε κατάσταση λιμοκτονίας.

Σημειώσεις

  1. Το άρθρο αυτό είναι μεταφορά αποσπάσματος από το βιβλίο “Fundamentals of Human Neuropsychology”  των Bryan Kolb, Ian Whishaw, έκδ. 2015.
  2. Το όνομα του ασθενή δεν είναι βέβαι Δημήτρης, ούτε ζεί στην Ελλάδα. Προκειται όμως πραγματικό περιστατικό που έχει συμβεί στην Καλιφόρνια.
  3. Οι αισθήσεις-φαντάσματα δεν είναι σπάνιες. Εχουν αναφερθεί από χρήστες κινητών τηλεφώνων ανύπαρκτη αίσθηση δόνησης όταν ακούνε κάποιον ήχο που μοιάζει με αυτόν του κινητού τους τηλεφώνου.

 

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