Εγκεφαλικά επεισόδια στους νέους

Τα εγκεφαλικά επεισόδια στους νέους αυξάνονται…

Τα ποσοστά εγκεφαλικών επεισοδίων στις ηλικίες άνω των 55 εμφανίζουν τα τελευταία χρόνια μια σταθεροποίηση με τάση μείωσης. Αντίθετα παρατηρείται μια ανησυχητική αύξηση των εγκεφαλικών επεισοδίων σε νεαρές ηλικίες και συγκεκριμένα στις ηλικίες μεταξύ 18 ώς 34 ετών. Το φαινόμενο αυτό παρατηρήθηκε στις ΗΠΑ ιδιαίτερα σε αστικές περιοχές (μεγάλες πόλεις κυρίως) και λιγότερο σε επαρχιακές πόλεις. Συγκεκριμένα στις ΗΠΑ, στην περίοδο από το 2003 ώς το 2012 παρατηρήθηκε μία αύξηση των εγκεφαλικών επεισοδίων κατά 32% στις ηλικίες από 18 ώς 34 ετών γυναίκες και 15% στους άνδρες.

Το γεγονός αυτό έχει τεράστιες κοινωνικές και οικονομικές επιπτώσεις. Προοιωνίζει επίσης ακόμη μεγαλύτερη αύξηση των εγκεφαλικών επεισόδιων στα επόμενα 30 χρόνια της ζωής αυτών των ατόμων. Πιθανολογείται ότι βρισκόμαστε -όπως λέν οι ερευνητές- στά πρώτα “προειδοποιητικά κύματα” ενός επερχόμενου τσουνάμι καθώς οι επιβαρυντικοί παράγοντες όπως η παχυσαρκία και το κάπνισμα έχουν αθροιστική δράση.

Ποιές είναι οι αιτίες;

Πιό συχνές αιτίες για τα εγκεφαλικά επεισόδια στους νέους θεωρούνται:

  • ήπιες ή σοβαρότερες συγγενείς καρδιοπάθειες για τις οποίες έχει παρατηρηθεί ότι η συχνότητά τους αυξάνεται τα τελευταία χρόνια
  • αρτηριοσκλήρυνση – επίσης αυξάνεται τελευαία η συχνότητά της στους νέους
  • υπέρταση
  • διαβήτης
  • κάπνισμα
  • παχυσαρκία
  • δυσλιπιδαιμία (αύξηση χοληστερίνης, τριγλυκεριδίων κλπ)
  • κατάχρηση αλκοόλ (πάνω από 4-5 αλκοολούχα ποτά την ημέρα)
  • ημικρανίες (αν και δεν είναι ξεκάθαρος ο τρόπος με τον οποίον σχετίζονται με τα εγκεφαλικά επεισόδια)
  • χρήση εξαρτησιογόνων ουσιών (κυρίως αμφεταμίνη, κοκαΐνη, κράκ)
  • ορμονικά αντισυλληπτικά

Τί κάνουμε;

Αρκετές αμερικανικές και ευρωπαϊκές ιατρικές εταιρείες, θορυβημένες από τις παρατηρήσεις αυτές, εξέδωσαν οδηγίες για την πρόληψη των εγκεφαλικών επεισοδίων ιδιαίτερα στους νέους.

Παρακάτω ακολουθεί μια μεταφορά αυτών των προτάσεων στα ελληνικά δεδομένα:

ΜΕΤΡΑ ΓΙΑ ΤΗΝ ΠΡΟΛΗΨΗ ΤΩΝ ΕΓΚΕΦΑΛΙΚΩΝ ΕΠΕΙΣΟΔΙΩΝ ΣΕ ΝΕΑΡΕΣ ΗΛΙΚΙΕΣ

  • Πλήρης καρδιολογικός έλεγχος (Καρδιογράφημα και υπερηχογράφημα καρδιάς) στο τέλος της εφηβείας.
  • Έλεγχος για σακχαρώδη διαβήτη τουλάχιστον μία φορά μέχρι το τέλος της εφηβείας και τουλάχιστον μία πλήρη μικροβιολογική εξέταση κάθε 1-2 χρόνια.
  • Έλεγχος για υπέρταση τουλάχιστον μία φορά το εξάμηνο.
  • Αποφυγή κατάχρησης αλκοόλ και καπνίσματος.
  • Αποφυγή χρήσης εξαρτησιογόνων ουσιών (κοκαΐνη, αμφεταμίνες, exstacy κλπ)
  • Σωματική δραστηριότητα (παιχνίδια, τρέξιμο), έλεγχος σωματικού βάρους.
  • Αποφυγή καθιστικής ζωής (περιορισμός των ωρών “μπροστά στην οθόνη του κομπιούτερ” μόνο όσο είναι απαραίτητο).

DoctorBabis

Παραπομπές-αναφορές

https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/more-millennials-are-having-strokes/?WT.mc_id=SA_TW_MB_NEWS&sf95663981=1 (Last Access Date: 14.7.2017)

Sally Sultan & Mitchell S. V. Elkind, “The Growing Problem of Stroke among Young Adults”, Curr Cardiol Rep (2013) 15:421 (DOI 10.1007/s11886-013-0421-z)

 

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